Traditional rural livelihoods are disappearing due to natural resource decline, climate pressure and,
also modernization. This study explores livelihood diversification from primary economic activities
into tourism employment in rural communities. We examine the developmental role of tourism in
areas where traditional activities, in this case fishing, have declined and tourism is growing. This
article presents the findings of two case studies: the coastal communities of Padstow (UK) and Paternoster (South Africa).